Public Attitudes and Opinions on Alcohol Use


Alcohol unit approximately 4 cl 40% strong alcoholic drinks or 12 cl 12% wine is one alcohol unit; 0,5 l beer (5,2%) are two alcohol units. One alcohol unit contains 10 g of absolute alcohol.

Educational level the highest level of education completed by the time of the survey. A group with basic education or with lower educational level is formed by those persons who have not acquired the secondary education (including persons without primary education).

Low-risk drinkers respondents who have drunk alcohol in the last 12 months, but the amount of alcohol consumed in the last 7 days is below the gender-specific low-risk limit and who drink more than 6 units of alcohol at a time a few times a month or less frequently.

Misusers respondents who have consumed alcohol above the sex-specific low risk limit and/or drink more than 6 units of alcohol at any one time once a week or more in the last 7 days.

Non-users respondents who have not used alcohol in the last 12 months.

Region of residence the statistical classification of Estonian territorial units NUTS 3 is used to define the region.


Public Attitudes and Opinions on Alcohol Use (EHAAT) is a NIHD survey, the aim of which was to get a comprehensive overview of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, social norms and practices related to alcohol consumption in Estonia. Data collection for the study was conducted by the National Institute for Health Development with the approval (No 1072, issued 27.04.2022) of the Human Research Ethics Committee. Data were collected using a combined method of online and postal survey during the period 6.09. - 21.11.2022. The sample included 5000 randomly selected main sample and 3500 non-respondents in the replacement sample from the population aged 15-74 years enrolled in the population register. In total, 2059 persons responded to the survey.

The survey was funded by the Population Health Development Programme (PHDP) budget and is planned to be repeated in 2026 to assess changes over 4 years.

The data tables show the results (proportions, %) from data weighted to match the sex and age group breakdown of the total population of persons aged 15-74 in Estonia. Data weighting is applied to correct for non-response (post-stratification weights or non-response weights). As the survey sample was based on a random sample of the Estonian population aged 15-74 stratified by sex and 5-year age groups, the weight coefficients were calculated as the population proportion of each sex and age group divided by the corresponding proportion of respondents. If the resulting weight coefficient was >1, the weighted data analysis increased the proportion of respondents in the corresponding sex and age group, and decreased the proportion of respondents with a weight coefficient of <1.


Reile R, Veideman T, Kaal E. Elanikkonna hoiakud ja arvamused alkoholi tarvitamisest (EHAAT). Metoodikaraport. Tallinn: Tervise Arengu Instituut; 2023 (in Estonian).


Additonal information about the survey can be found in National Institute for Health Development website (in Estonian)


Esta Kaal

National Institute for Health Development

E-post: esta.kaal[at]


Updated: 29.02.2024